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                  Health Monitoring Program

                  Facility Control and Maintenance

                  Mice intended for export are housed in a strictly controlled barrier facility with limited access granted only to trained laboratory and animal care personnel via key card access. Personal protective equipment, including disposable gowns, shoe covers, gloves, hair bonnets, and masks, is required for entry into the facility. Animal care personnel are dedicated to the facility and/or room to ensure strict adherence to facility protocol. Mice are housed in positive-pressure, individually ventilated cages/units (IVC/U) that are changed every 1-2 weeks. Corncob bedding and paper nest enrichment are provided to the mice, and irradiated feed is supplied. Prior to use, all caging, bedding, and enrichment are autoclaved to ensure sterility. An Edstrom automatic watering system supplies processed water (reverse osmosis, chlorinated). Once mice leave the barrier facility, they cannot return.

                  Health Status

                  The mice housed in the GemPharmatech facility maintain a specified and opportunistic pathogen-free (SOPF) status or germ-free (GF) status. The health status of the animals is meticulously monitored through various methods, including the use of sentinel mice, random sampling within the colony, and exhaust air dusts (EAD) testing. Detailed information regarding these monitoring procedures is described below.

                  Sentinel mice: The health status of all colonies is monitored on a quarterly basis using sentinel mice. These sentinel cages contain two female mice aged between 4-6 weeks. Biweekly, the sentinel mice are exposed to soiled bedding collected from cages within their respective racks. The soiled bedding samples are pooled from multiple cages. Each rack unit contains 70 or 80 cages, and the sentinel mice are housed two per cage on each side of the rack unit. The results of these tests are reported as the number of positive samples out of the total number of testing samples. The health monitoring program includes necropsy examinations, detection of parasites, bacteria, and viruses.

                  Colony random sample testing: To detect any potential microbiological issues within the colony, live mice, feces, or oral swabs are randomly sampled from immunodeficient mice and large colonies such as C57BL/6, BALB/c ,NCG mice, etc.

                  EAD testing: Monthly, exhaust air dust is collected for pathogen detection through EAD testing.

                  Importing Animals

                  For imported mice, only animals that are specific pathogen-free (SPF) are accepted. However, they must undergo rederivation and testing before being released into the barrier facility. These animals are initially quarantined in isolators, and samples such as hair, feces, or serology samples are collected and submitted to the GemPharmatech microbial testing center for analysis. Only after passing microbial tests can the animals be transported to the breeding rooms via cesarean section or embryo transfer.

                  VIRUSES Method
                  Mouse Thymic Virus (MTV) PCR
                  Ectromelia virus (Ect) PCR
                  Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) ELISA
                  Sendai virus (SV) ELISA
                  Pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) ELISA
                  Reovirus-3 (Reo-3) ELISA/PCR
                  Minute virus of mice (MVM) PCR
                  Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCMV) ELISA/PCR
                  Hantavirus (HV) ELISA/PCR
                  Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) ELISA/PCR
                  Mouse Adenovirus FL (MAD1) PCR
                  Mouse Adenovirus K87 (MAD 2) PCR
                  Polyoma Virus (POLY) ELISA/PCR
                  Mouse Parvovirus (MPV) PCR
                  Mouse Cytomegalovirus (MCMV) PCR
                  Murine Norovirus (MNV) PCR
                  Epizootic Diarrhea of Infant Mice (EDIM) PCR
                  K virus PCR
                  LDH elevating virus (LDV) PCR
                  Murine chapparvovirus (MKPV) PCR
                  BACTERIA & MYCOPLASMA Method
                  Proteus mirabilis Culture
                  Pasteurella multocida Culture
                  Klebsiella oxytoca Culture
                  Filobacterium rodentium (CAR Bacillus) PCR
                  Helicobacter spp. (e.g. H. hepaticus, H. bilis, H. muridarum, H. rodentium) PCR
                  Pneumocystis spp. PCR
                  Citrobacter rodentium Culture
                  Bordetella Bronchus Culture
                  Mycoplasma spp. PCR
                  Salmonella spp. Culture
                  Mycoplasma?pulmonis PCR
                  Corynebacterium?kutscheri Culture
                  Tyzzer's?organism PCR
                  Pasteurella?pneumotropica (Rodentibacter pneumotropicus, Rodentibacter heylii) Culture
                  Klebsiella pneumoniae Culture
                  Staphylococcus aureus Culture
                  Pseudomonas aeruginosa Culture
                  Pathogenic dermal fungi PCR
                  Streptobacillus moniliformis Culture
                  Corynebacterium?bovis PCR
                  PARASITES & PROTOZOA Method
                  Eimeria spp. Micro
                  Entamoeba Micro
                  Endoparasites (tapeworms, pinworms, and other helminths) Micro
                  Flagellatas (e.g. Giardia muris, Spironucleus muris, etc.) Micro
                  Toxoplasma gondii PCR
                  Ectoparasites, e.g., fleas, mites, and lice Micro
                  Ciliata Micro
                  Encephalitozoon?cunicul PCR
                  OTHER Method
                  Pinworms PCR
                  Furmites PCR


                  Additionally, GemPharmatech partners with several respected institutions and organizations to breed and house mice. For information on the health monitoring and testing practices of these facilities, please contact us.

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